Differential Reinforcement of Alternative, Incompatible, or Other Behavior Fact Sheet
Differential reinforcement of alternative, incompatible, or other behavior (DRA/I/O) teaches new skills and increases behavior by providing positive/desirable consequences for behaviors or their absence that reduces the occurrence of an undesirable behavior, especially behaviors that interfere with the learner’s learning, development, relationships, health and so on (e.g., tantrums, aggression, self-injury, stereotypic behavior). Through differential reinforcement the learner is reinforced for desired behaviors, while inappropriate behaviors are ignored. The learner is provided reinforcement when: a) the learner is engaging in a specific desired behavior other than the inappropriate behavior (DRA), b) the learner is engaging in a behavior that is physically impossible to do while exhibiting the inappropriate behavior (DRI), or c) the learner is not engaging in the interfering behavior (DRO). Differential reinforcement is often used with other evidence-based practices such as prompting to teach the learner behaviors that are more functional or incompatible with interfering behavior, with the overall goal of decreasing that interfering behavior.
DRA/I/O meets evidence-based criteria with 26 single case design studies.
According to the evidence-based studies, this intervention has been effective for preschoolers (3-5 years) to young adults (19-22 years) with ASD.
DRA/I/O can be used effectively to address social, communication, behavior, joint attention, play, school-readiness, academic, motor, and adaptive skills.
Kucharczyk, S. (2013). Differential reinforcement of alternative, incompatible, or other behavior (DRA/I/O) fact sheet. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Adapted from: Bogin, J. & Sullivan, L. (2009). Overview of differential reinforcement of other behaviors. Sacramento: University of California at Davis School of Medicine, M.I.N.D. Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Kyle Bringhurst, MSW
Address: 3048 East Baseline Road Suite 107
Mesa, AZ 85204